Summer Happenings

Nicola Polloni (Leuven) has organized a complex online initiative, The Elusive Substrate, which over the next year will study prime matter and hylomorphism “from ancient Rome to early Qing China” (via the Middle Ages). The first event–“Roman Preludes”–is this Friday (May 14, 2021) and activities will run, roughly every month, into summer 2022.

Monika Michałowska (Łódź) and Riccardo Fedriga (Milan) are organizing an international conference on The Will and Its Acts in Late Medieval Ethics and Theology (online, June 17-18, 2021). The format of the conference is interesting: the talks will be prerecorded and prewatched, and the conference itself will be devoted to discussion.

The program for this summer’s Women on Medieval Philosophy conference has been finalized. The online event runs July 8-10, 2021. All are welcomed to attend.

Graziana Ciola (Nijmegen) and Paul Bakker (Nijmegen) are organizing a conference for next spring on Marsilius of Inghen and His Legacy (March 3-5, 2022, in Nijmegen). Cfp deadline June 1, 2021.

The University of Geneva is advertising an “assistant” position in medieval philosophy. This is what, in the American context, would be called a “teaching assistant” position: it’s open to students who have their MA and wish to pursue a PhD. The ability to teach in French is required. The application deadline is the end of this week, May 15, 2021.

There’s an International Conference on Philosophical Anthropology in Ibn Sina scheduled for this coming December in Tehran (December 26-28, 2021). Cfp deadline July 22, 2021.

Stephen Ogden (Catholic University of America) is moving to a position at the University of Notre Dame, which he will begin next fall.

Preview of coming attractions: my next blog post is going to depart from my usual narrow focus on medieval philosophy, and look at the dominance of Oxford University Press in the field of philosophy.

(The Post Previously without a Title)

Deadlines are approaching for various SIEPM initiatives:

  • The application for one-to-one stipends is the end of this week (May 1, 2021). These are stipends for junior scholars to work directly with senior individual scholars.
  • Submissions for the annual SIEPM junior scholar award are due June 1, 2021.
  • You also have until June 1 to nominate your favorite senior scholar for an SIEPM Lifetime Achievement Award.

All this and more can be found at the SIEPM website.

Juhana Toivanen is advertising a three-year postdoc position at the University of Jyväskylä. The project concerns the social and political dimension of moral vices from medieval to early modern philosophy.

The SMRP is advertising its annual Founder’s Prize, aimed at younger scholars. The deadline for submissions is June 1, 2021. There doesn’t yet seem to be up-to-date information on the web, but I am told the deadline is June 1, 2021.

A conference next month in Stockholm, on the history of final causation, has succumbed to the inevitable and is going online. But that means anyone can listen! May 20-22, 2021, details here.

Olivier Boulnois (Paris) will be giving the Stanton lectures, virtually, at Cambridge University, throughout May 2021. His topic will be Paul and Philosophy.

The Journal of the History of Ideas is searching for a new co-executive editor to join the current editorial team. Applications should be received by June 1, 2021.

The 23rd European Symposium of Medieval Logic and Semantics has been postponed: it will now be meeting in June 2022, still in Warsaw.

The 43rd Kölner Mediaevistentagung will take place September 5-9, 2022. The topic will be consensus. Proposals, with a brief abstract, are due July 31, 2021.

Congratulations to Khaled El-Rouayheb (Harvard), whose won the 2020 best-article prize at the British Journal for the History of Philosophy, for a paper on “The Liar Paradox in Fifteenth-Century Shiraz.”

Although I don’t generally announce new publications individually, I cannot refrain from calling to your attention the beautiful new two-volume tribute to Irène Rosier-Catach, published this spring by Aracne. By my count, it contains chapters from 87 different scholars!

Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy

It’s nearly ten years since I began editing OSMP, and I’ve decided that volume 10, for which I’m currently accepting submissions, will be my last.

I am delighted to report, however, that the series will continue on in the sure hands of Peter King and Martin Pickavé. They’ll take charge this fall. Until then, the current system for submissions remains in place.

And, I might add, I still have plenty of room in my final volume for good papers!

More Spring Announcements

Res Philosophica is sponsoring an essay prize on the topic Theological Dogma and Philosophical Innovation in Medieval Philosophy. There’s a cash prize to be won, and of course publication in the journal. Papers must be received by July 1, 2021.

The long-awaited third meeting of the Avicenna Study Group, originally scheduled for last June, has now been reorganized by Andreas Lammer (Trier) as a weekly series, beginning June 1, 2021. Details here.

The Roger Bacon Research Society has scheduled a series of online talks over the next 12 months, each on a different aspect of Bacon’s scientific theory. Next up (March 19, 2021) is Alexander Fidora (Barcelona) on “The Division of Science.”

The Graduate Student Chapter of the Aquinas and the Arabs International Working Group is meeting on March 19-20, 2021. Details here.

The Medieval Philosophy in the UK Network is holding its next meeting online, on March 26, 2021. Details here.

The University of Würzburg has rescheduled, for the coming summer, last year’s summer school on Affective Intentionality in Medieval Philosophy and Phenomenology (July 26-30, 2021). Application deadline is March 31, 2021.

Trinity College Dublin is sponsoring an online course in Byzantine Greek: both a beginners and a more advanced class. The price is quite reasonable, with further financial support available. Details here.

Doctor Virtualis is planning a special 20th-anniversary issue on Analogy and the Middle Ages. Deadline for submissions is April 30, 2021.

There’s a conference in honor of Miguel Cruz Hernández scheduled for September: Pensamiento del Islam: fundamentos, instituciones y sociedades (Alcalá la Real, September 24-25, 2021).

Congratulations to Jari Kaukua (Jyväskylä), who won the Journal of the History of Philosophy‘s prize for best article, for his paper on “Avicenna’s Outsourced Rationalism.”

Latest News in the Field

I ought to have posted before now that the Franciscan Institute (St. Bonaventure, NY) is advertising a tenure-track assistantprofessor position in theology. They seek candidates whose doctorate is in theology, with a strong knowledge of the Franciscan tradition. The soft deadline was March 1, 2021, but I should think it’s not too late to get an application in.

Christophe Geudens (Leuven) and Nicola Polloni (Leuven) have formed MeLO, the Medieval Logic and Ontology Seminar. They’ve scheduled online talks throughout this spring.

The Max Planck Institute’s research group on premodern sciences is holding a series of online talks this spring, many of interest to medievalists. Details here.

The British Society for the History of Philosophy holds its annual conference, online, on April 21-23, 2021. This year’s topic is Women in the History of Philosophy.

The postponed inaugural conference of the Society for Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy has been rescheduled for October 3-6, 2021 (U. of Notre Dame). Already, they’ve received around 70 proposals for talks, but they’re open to receiving still more, until April 11. Details here.

The Catholic Theological Faculty of Prague has organized a conference in honor of of Professor Stanislav Sousedík’s 90th birthday, focusing on three subjects: Second Scholasticism, Analytical Metaphysics, and Christian Apologetics (October 27-29, 2021). Details here.

A conference on Augustine’s De civitate Dei is being organized in Leuven/Brussels for next January, focused on political doctrine, textual transmission and early medieval reception. Details here; cfp deadline is March 31, 2021.

There’s a new, open-access tool available for the “accurate machine-reading of medieval Latin texts.” The folk who have developed this tool are holding an online training session on March 10, 2021. As I understand it, there are two things here: the Transkribus platform, designed in general for historical texts, and a specialized “model” for medieval Latin. If anyone out there knows more about this program, and how useful it might be for our world, comments to this post would be warmly welcomed.

Finally, I’m sorry to report the death of Fabrizio Mondadori (1943-2021), a longtime professor at the University of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, and the author of a series of brilliant papers on modality, especially the work of John Duns Scotus. There’s a nice obituary here.

News for a Cold Planet

Globally, we’re in no position to object to cold weather but, still, it’s cold here! It’s also, unaccountably, been a long time since I posted anything, so here’s an attempt to catch up:

A online conference showcasing the work of female scholars working in medieval philosophy is being held on July 8-10, 2021. It’s being organized by folk at KU-Leuven. Details here. The cfp deadline is March 1.

The SIEPM has two colloquia tentatively scheduled for this summer, which may or may not happen in person (details here):

  • June 7-9, 2021, in Ramat Gan, Israel, on “Dialectic in the Middle Ages: Between Debate and the Foundation of Science”;
  • June 14-15, 2021, in Porto, on “Per cognitionem visualem. From the Visual Exegesis to the Visualization of Cognitive Processes in the Middle Ages and Beyond” (originally scheduled for 2020).

The International Congress of the SIEPM, which meets only once every five years, is scheduled for August 23-27, 2022, in Paris. Further details to come.

There’s an online summer school scheduled for July 5-9, 2021, organized out of Groningen, on Methodologies in the History of Philosophy. Applications are due by March 14.

Thomas Hibbs (University of Dallas) is directing a summer program for PhD students on Justice in Thomistic Ethics (July 18-24, 2021, in Washington DC). Application deadline March 31.

The American Philosophical Association has announced an annual Alvin Plantinga Prize, awarded for “original essays that engage philosophical issues about or in substantial ways related to theism.” The prize money is significant, but you must be an APA member. The deadline is March 30, 2021.

Scott Williams (UNC Asheville), in collaboration with Gordon Wilson, has created an extremely useful webpage on Henry of Ghent, complete with extensive links to online texts, an up-to-date account of where the critical edition stands, and a comprehensive bibliography.

There’s an interview with Ana Maria Mora Marquez (Gothenburg) at the blog 3:16.

I’ve got more material to share, but that’s all for this post. Will be back soon.

How to Read Scholastic Latin

I’ve just read with great pleasure Dylan Schrader’s Shortcut to Scholastic Latin (Paideia Institute, 2019). It’s a brief, reliable, sometimes even charming handbook for beginners, which I recommend having on your shelf for students, if not for yourself.

I do, however, have one complaint: the book seems to me to target the wrong audience. Father Schrader’s intended audience is someone with a solid intermediate grasp of classical Latin, coming to scholastic Latin for the first time. But, in my many years of training people to read scholastic Latin, I find that such students are rare. What I’ve encountered, overwhelmingly, are students who have quickly run through a beginner’s course in Latin, and now wish to put that knowledge to work on texts they actually care about.

Schrader’s Shortcut will help them, for sure, but I think it is not quite the book they need. They don’t need information about the differences between classical and scholastic Latin, since they barely know classical Latin. They need a shortcut to the most important features of scholastic Latin that they probably didn’t acquire from racing through Wheelock’s Latin.

So what are those features? I’m not going to write a book, but here, as my gift for the holidays, is an attempt at a top-10 list:

1. First and most importantly, constantly look for the logical connectives, in particular:

  • A ergo B / A igitur B : these always mean that B follows from A.
  • A … B enim / A quia B : these almost always mean that A is true because B is true.
  • A … B vero / A … B autem : these very often mean that B is an additional, complementary fact beyond A, and especially that B is a minor premise relative to the major premise that is A. (Don’t be fooled into thinking that vero has something to do with truth.)

2. Relatedly, become accustomed to seeing these connectives as, in effect, the text’s punctuation. Here it helps to be aware that, unlike in English, many of these words tend to be used in postpositive position—that is, as the second word in the new clause. And once sentences start to take form around these words, some otherwise confusing particles can be put into this same framework:

  • quidem autem : this works (much like mende in Greek) to build a construction of the form “On the one hand …, on the other hand….”
  • sicut A … ita B: you’ll see this comparative construction everywhere: just as A, so too B.
  • tum A … tum B / tam A … quam B: these particles build lists: A and B
  • vel A vel B: these particles build disjunctions: either A or B

3. The passive voice. Because logical and causal relationships are nearly everything in philosophy, it is utterly critical (a) to recognize the difference between the active and passive voice; (b) to become proficient at putting subject and object in their proper place when the verb is passive; (c) to bear in mind the common deponent verbs (sequor, loquor, utor, patior…); (d) to be prepared for a verb in the passive voice to be impersonal: dicitur quod …. “it is said….”; (e) to be ready to identify passive infinitives, which are very common.

4. Dependent clauses. This is a large subject, but there are some easy things to look for:

  • cum with a subjunctive verb is extremely common and almost always means since/because….
  • indirect discourse is extremely common and is routinely done in either of two ways:
    • quod + subjective: Quidam dicit quod anima sit forma
      • do not overtranslate the subjunctive here; it is subjunctive just because it is within a dependent clause; its meaning is indicative, i.e. he says that the soul is a form.
    • accusative + infinitive: Necesse est animam esse formam; “it’s necessary that the soul is a form.”

5. Counterfactual conditionals using the imperfect subjunctive. E.g., Si esset divisa, tunc sequeretur…. (“If it were divided, then it would follow…”). This might seem like an advanced bit of Latin that beginners don’t need to worry about for a while, but in philosophical prose the counterfactual is critical and very common.

6. Gerunds made easy. When dico becomes dicendum, it has assumed noun form as a gerund. Things get tricky here, and Schrader is helpful on the intricacies, but for beginners what’s critical are three usages that appear all over the place:

  • modus dicendi : “manner of speaking”; this is the most straightforward use for the gerund; native English speakers who never learned their grammar should note that ‘speaking’ is how we make a gerund in English.
  • dicendum est : here the gerund has obligatory force: “it should be said.”
  • ad dicendum : here the gerund expresses purpose: “in order to say.”

Part of what’s tricky here is that, in these three cases, the gerund plays completely different roles. But if you simply learn these three fairly well defined usages, you’ll be able to get a long way.

7. The omnipresent impersonal verbs. It helps a lot to recognize fluently the following verbs:

  • Oportet quod: it is necessary that
  • Contingit quod: it happens (occasionally: it is a contingent fact that)
  • Accidit + dative: it occurs to someone/thing (occasionally: it is accidental to)

Bear in mind that licet almost always appears as a conjunction, not a verb. It introduces a subjunctive verb and means Although…. (Here again, don’t overtranslate the subjunctive; cf. #4.)

8. Noun vs. adjectives. In scholastic Latin, word order starts to look a bit like the word order in modern European languages. But because it’s never exactly the same, it’s easy to mistake one part of speech for another—that is, to be confused about what’s a noun, what’s a verb, what’s an adjective, and what’s an adverb. There’s no easy rule here—this is the heart and soul of reading Latin—but one common, easily fixable mistake is to confuse nouns and adjectives. So, forma is the noun and formalis is the adjective. In principle, this is pretty easy, but in practice beginners often fail to catch the difference, in part I think just because they aren’t on guard against the mistake.

9. These phrases need to become second nature:

  • secundum x (“according to x”; note that ‘secundum’ only rarely means “second”)
  • quantum ad x
  • inquantum est x
  • propter x

These expressions have shades of meaning, but they all serve a similar function: they bring x into salience as explanatorily relevant.

10. Exploit the compositional nature of Latin. An astonishing number of Latin terms are formed using prefixes such as con-, per-, ab-, ad-, in-, and so on. Learn the connotations associated with each prefix, and become comfortable with the range of meaning suggested by common roots like sisto. Once you’re alert to this sort of thing, expand your reach by attending to cases where common verbs have surprisingly different principle parts, such as fero, tuli, latus. If you can connect latus to fero, and remember that this means “to carry,” you’ll unlock a lot of further composite vocabulary.

Of course, these rules won’t make you fluent in scholastic Latin all by themselves. The only way to achieve that is to practice constantly. I recommend that you find an easy text (Aquinas or Ockham are leading candidates) that has been translated into a friendly language, make a printed copy of the text and the translation (so that you get away from electronic distractions and so you can write notes on the page), and then devote a set time every day (30 minutes?) to working through the Latin and checking yourself against the translation.

Happy Holidays!

More of What We’ve Come to Expect from 2020

Silvia di Donato (CNRS Paris) has organized, this Thursday, a daylong conference on La prophétie et la révélation dans les traditions philosophiques arabo-islamique et juive. It’s a mix of French and English papers, all online of course (December 10, 2020).

Antoine Côté (Ottawa) has organized a great series of online talks for this spring, starting with Scott MacDonald (Cornell) on January 15, 2021. Details here.

Next fall, the Sociedad de Filosofía Medieval will hold its 8th International Congress on the subject De cognitione (Porto, September 6-8, 2021). The cfp deadline is March 15, 2021.

Schabel and Duba have concluded their editorship at Vivarium with an issue that seems perfectly suited to 2020. When I unwrapped my hard copy yesterday, I swear that a little smoke came off the thing. It begins with a series of Retraction Notices and ends with an extended review by Mark Thakkar (St. Andrews) that forecasts “a gathering crisis in medieval studies.” I won’t be publishing reader comments here—this isn’t that sort of blog—but suffice it to say that volume 58:4 is a memorable read.

Berlin, Oxford, and Other News

Three one-year postdocs on the topic of Human Abilities are being advertised at the Humboldt University in Berlin. This is the latest funding opportunity from the Perler-Vetter DFG project. The application deadline is January 10, 2021.

Oxford is advertising a multi-year postdoc in medieval Islamic philosophy, with the possibility of its turning into a permanent position. The application deadline is very soon: midday UK time on Friday November 27, 2020.

The Medieval Institute at Notre Dame is advertising a one-year junior faculty fellowship. To apply you must hold a position as an assistant professor at a North American university. The application deadline is February 1, 2021.

Don’t yet have a job as an assistant professor in North America? Maybe it’s because you’re not studying Byzantine philosophy! But, good news, the Gennadius Library in Athens is sponsoring a summer session on medieval Greek, with some funding available (June 28 – July 28, 2021). Application deadline is January 15, 2021.

For the record, that was just a little Thanksgiving humor about Byzantine philosophy as useful on the job market. (Though, who knows….) But if by chance you do have expertise in Byzantine philosophy, you can apply for the Medieval Institute at Notre Dame’s nine-month postdoc in Byzantine Studies. The application deadline is February 1, 2021.

The British Society for the History of Philosophy is sponsoring a Graduate Essay Prize. The deadline is very soon: November 30, 2020.

The Scotus Archiv at Bonn is sponsoring a colloquium on the Quodlibet of John Duns Scotus (December 4-5, 2020, online).

The Aquinas and ‘the Arabs’ Group at Marquette is advertising their annual graduate-student workshop (March 19-20, 2021, online). The cfp deadline is February 1, 2021.

There’s an interview of Henrik Lagerlund (Stockholm University) at Richard Marshall’s site 3:16am.

If you’ve been waiting to buy the critical edition of William Ockham, or any of the many other useful texts published by the Franciscan Institute, now is a good time: all books, from November 27 to 30, are 40% off.

Report on My Online Week

A lot of people have asked me to file a report on how my week of virtual teaching went. I ended up holding 17 classes/talks/meetings, on four continents. Contrary to what I expected, only about half of these were classes—the rest were invitations to give papers and to meet informally with smaller groups. The whole thing was exhausting, but also tremendously fun and rewarding.

It’s hard to single out any highlights from the week, since it was all great, but just to give you a sense, here are a few that stand out:

  • Most heartwarming: teaching the Republic to honors students at Houston Baptist University. So young and enthusiastic and full of ideas. I wanted to grab them through my screen and pull them up to Boulder to hang out with me for the week.
  • Most surprising: giving a talk to a classroom full of scholars at Guangzhou University, most of them not wearing masks. At the end, they optimistically assured me that America would soon beat COVID!
  • Most challenging: making a presentation to Eleonore Stump’s dissertation group at Saint Louis University. It’s like arguing a case at the U.S. Supreme Court. You’re lucky if you get two sentences into your brief before they start firing questions at you.
  • Best show: 7am Thursday at the Universidad Nacional del Litoral. As it happens, the talk was recorded, and you can watch it here.